Nutri-Facts - North America

A series of fact sheets written by scientific staff of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) that is focused on essential plant nutrients and their use.



Calcium (Ca) nutrition plays a vital role in the production of highquality crops. It also has an important function as a valuable soil amendment in many situations.

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Chloride is commonly found in nature—from seas, to soils, to the air—it’s everywhere. It is a monovalent anion, having a single negative charge (Cl-). Plants take up the element chlorine in this anionic form. Under standard conditions chlorine (Cl) is an unstable, yellow-green gas. Unlike Cl- , free Cl rarely occurs in nature.

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Cobalt (Co) fertilization is occasionally reported to benefit crop growth, but the need for supplemental Co is rather rare. Cobalt has only recently been recognized as a potentially essential nutrient for plants. Cobalt is necessary for nitrogen (N) fixation occurring within the nodules of legume plants.

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Copper (Cu) is one of eight essential plant micronutrients. When Cu is deficient, common crop responses to its application include reduced disease, increased crop growth and improved quality. Commonly applied Cu sources include fertilizer, animal manures, biosolids, and pesticides.

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