03 Oct 2012

History of the "4Rs"

The 4Rs is a concept developed through a long history of cooperation between the fertilizer industry and the scientific community. Since at least 1988, application of the right nutrient source or product at the right rate, right time and in the right place has been closely associated with agricultural sustainability. This linkage is discussed on page 99 in the following paper from a conference proceedings published by IPNI's predecessor, the Potash & Phosphate Institute, and co-authored by an industry agronomist and a university professor. The other two papers written by IPNI staff for an IFA Workshop in 2007 mark a recent rebirth of this time-tested concept.