Guatemala's grain production statistics
An estimate of Guatemala's population in 2001 was 12,974,361 (World Fact Book of the CIA). with a growth rate of 2.6%. The agricultural sector accounts for half of the labor force. The most important crops are coffee, sugar cane, and bananas. This article describes basics statistics of grain production in Guatemala. Trends in corn, bean, rice and wheat production during the last 16 years are presented. Given the population growth rate it would be expected a steady increment in grain production and yield, unfortunately the statistics shown does no reflect neither productivity, nor production increases. Guatemalan's staple diet are mainly corn and black beans.
Table 1 and Figure 1 show that corn production area and average yield are almost the same since 1984.
Total production since 1985 to 2000 has been around 1,200,000 metric tons in a range from one million three hundred thousand to less than one million; particularly after hurricane Mitch in 1998. On the contrary, imports have increased 63 times, due to population growth, given that the country production has been kept constant. Corn yield average is about 1,800 kg/ha peaking at 2,000 kg/ha in the 90's and decreasing in 1998 because of floods as consequence of hurricane Mitch.
Guatemala's corn is grown without irrigation it's water supply comes from rain.
Table 1. Area, production, yield and imports of corn in Guatemala since 1984/85 to 2000/01.
Figure 1. Yield and corn production in Guatemala from 1985 to 2000
Source: Instituto Nacional de comercialización Agrícola-INDECA- and Banco de Guatemala
Bean production has fluctuated in the last 15 years but there has not been a steady increase in yield and total production (Table 2, Figure 2). The average yield in this period of time was 0.71 ton/ha, 89/90 and 90/91 seasons reported yields of 0.91 and 0.92 ton/ha which were good compared to the mean.
Table 2. Area, production, yield and imports of beans in Guatemala since 1984/85
Figure 2. Beans yield and production in Guatemala from 1984 to 2000
Rice production has not increased (Figure 3), on the contrary imports have been increasing steadily since 1984. In 2000 rice imports were 42,139 tons equal to the production in that year (Table 3). Average yield was 2.83 ton/ha with a standard deviation of 0.27 ton/ha. Rice yield in seasons of 97/98 and 99/2000 were the highest in the last 16 years.
Table 3. Area, production, yield and imports of rice in Guatemala since 1984/85
Figure 3. Rice yield and production in Guatemala from 1984 to 2000
Source: Instituto Nacional de Comercialización Agrícola -INDECA- (1984/85 - 1992/93); Asociación Guatemalteca del Arroz -ARROZGUA- y Banco de Guatemala.
Wheat production and yield are shown in Table 4 and Figure 4. It can be seen that wheat cultivated area and wheat production have decreased meaningfully. Wheat imports accounts for 97% of domestic consumption.
Table 4. Area, production, yield and imports of wheat in Guatemala since 1984/85
Figure 4. Rice yield and production in Guatemala from 1984 to 2000
Source: Gremial Nacional de Trigueros (1984/85 - 1995/96), Asociación Nacional de Trigueros -ANAT- y Banco de Guatemala.